Post-modern Theories of Management

Robert Smith

The workforce in society today is different to the ones of the past, where different methods had been put into practice. Modern organisation today would need to address the diversity of people such as age, ethnicity, religion, gender and class and also the stress that would be evident in the workforce. The essay will look at the certain cases of diversity and causes of stress apparent in the organisation and how the post modern theories of management such as workplace democracy, and feminist theories have contributed to the organisation's solution in dealing with the issues. Before delving into the post modern management theories and examples, the idea of stress and diversity will be analysed and how post-modern management can be an effective solution.

Pepper (1995) explains that in the workplace or at home, emotion of constantly being challenged. Tension may co-exist in a supervisor and subordinate position and conversation of confidential or personal matters may trigger emotions at work. Areas of conflict in the organisation can exist in the organisation itself, the department, boss, sub-cultural group, or individual colleagues. Emotions on betrayal, dedication, anger, disappointment, hate or jealousy can be provoked. With emotional behaviour, stress can also be a common factor in the workforce; it is also increasing in modern life. The result of stress can lead to a burnout, emotional and physical exhaustion, depersonalisation and lack of personal accomplishment. Common stressors are dealing with the workload, quantitive problems such as having too much work, staff shortage, and company downsizing. Alternatively the problem could be qualitative; the work is too demanding, unsuitable appointments, insufficient training, old equipment or poor instructions. As well as stress in the work environment, the organisation cannot forget stressful events employees may be dealing with at home.

Examples could include marriage problems, illness, pregnancy, moving house, death or more. If not addressed, serious outcomes could be physical, such as heart disease, insomnia, chronic pain, high blood pressure and psychological effects could be a nervous breakdown, depression and extreme cases could be even mental illness. Stress symptoms can affect the organisation by employees loosing commitment, job satisfaction and becoming disenchanted with the profession. Eventually, the employee may just decide to leave and it is in the best interest of the company to ensure the workplace is not stressful and to monitor working conditions which may lead to employees becoming stressed out (Pepper, 1995).

With the definition of stress discussed, the issue of diversity will be explored and how it can also be linked to the cause of stress. Society today is full of diversity, whether it is in gender, age, religion, ethnicity or social class. Looking in-depth at gender, women have always held a stereotypical image as being illogical, fickle, and incapable of thought and logic.

Frug (1992) recognises that gender is not naturally given but socially constructed, and suggests one "principle" of postmodernism is that human experience is located "inescapably within language." Power is implemented not only through direct force, but also how language shapes and restricts realism. Yet language is always open to re-interpretation, it can also be used to resist the shaping and restrictions.






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About the Author
2006 All rights reserved
Robert Smith was born in New York City in 1956. He has spent more than 12 years working as a professor of English at New York University. He is fond of giving writing tips for students. Now he spends most of his time with his family and shares his experience in? essay writing?online. He is a right person to ask about how to?