While makeshift workstations may meet basic needs as so many people work from home due to the pandemic, most fail to provide sound ergonomic design, according to researcher April Chambers.

People are creating makeshift workspaces from their dining room tables, kitchen counters, living room couches, or folding tables and chairs.

As a result, Chambers, an assistant professor at the University of Pittsburgh School of Education who specializes in occupational ergonomics and bioengineering, expects a steep rise in the number of people who are experiencing pain or discomfort in their neck, back, or shoulders. Unchecked, the pain can develop into long-term musculoskeletal injuries.

“At least one-third of workers report musculoskeletal discomfort and injuries when they are in a normal office environment with a desk and a chair. You can imagine it will be much higher in our current climate,” says Chambers.

She says people can take several basic actions to make their home workstation more comfortable and reduce injury potential.

The best practices are built on research, as well as recommendations from the US Department of Labor’s Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).

The right posture

First and foremost, Chambers advises people working from home to focus on improving their posture, both in how they sit or stand and in how their work station is designed. The ideal posture is a neutral posture since it places the least strain on the joints and muscles.

“Anatomically, your body is designed to best withstand force in a certain posture. You can’t change your body weight (the force), but your posture changes how it is applied,” says Chambers. She compares that to a car being out of alignment and the damage it does to tires.

In terms of a person’s workstation setup, Chambers says you should set the top of the computer monitor at an eye-level height or slightly below. If the monitor is too low, then you can raise its height by propping books underneath. In addition, the screen should be an arm’s length away. Furthermore, people using laptops should avoid working with the laptop in their lap because looking down at the screen can place strain on the neck.

In addition, the chair a person sits in should provide lower-back support, she says. Those with uncomfortable chairs should roll up a towel or insert a pillow to provide lumbar support.

Chambers also has tips for how you should position yourself when seated. Your neck should be kept straight; your shoulders should be relaxed; and your arms should be at your sides. Elbows should be close to a 90-degree angle, although 70 to 130 degrees is within the acceptable range. Wrists should be straight. Legs and hips should be at a 90-degree angle. Place your feet flat on the floor. If your feet do not reach the floor, books or a small stool can become a support surface.

Get up and move

People working from home should also build more activity in their workday in order to improve their home ergonomics, says Chambers. Movement can include short activity breaks like walks, stretching, or physical fitness.

“We take for granted the extent of our movement at the work office. When working from home, you don’t have to walk down the hallway to make copies or walk across campus for a meeting. Those were movement breaks naturally built into our day,” says Chambers.

Chambers also recommends that people add movement to their home workday by alternating between sitting and standing throughout the day. This is important, she says, because human bodies should not stay idle for long stretches of time.

When working in a standing position, the monitor should still be at or just below eye-level, your upper arms should be close to the body with the wrist straight, and your hands should be at or below the level of the elbows. You should also make sure your head, neck, torso, and legs are in line. You should also wear comfortable shoes with good support if standing for a period of time while working.

“Alternating positions are critically important to relieve musculoskeletal discomfort. You could be in the perfect seated position, but the human body is not designed to stay still. We are meant to move,” says Chambers.

In addition to including movement breaks, people should also take breaks to limit their continuous screen time, she says. She recommends following the 20-20-20 rule. For every 20 minutes spent staring at the computer screen, spend 20 seconds looking at something else that is 20 feet away. This exercise reduces eye strain, which in turn reduces associated headaches.

“Eye strain is being overlooked. It can damage vision, cause headaches. You will also see it manifest itself in posture issues, with people hunching over as their eyes get tired,” says Chambers.

Listen to your body

Chambers urges any person experiencing pain or discomfort to take immediate action.

“Anyone who is facing discomfort is at risk for developing a longer-term injury. This is your body’s way of telling you that something is wrong, and you should listen to it,” says Chambers.

Like the million of other Americans, Chambers has also been working from home. She tries to practice what she preaches about ergonomics by incorporating activity breaks throughout the day and by using a sit-stand desk to alternate her posture.

“It’s a matter of establishing a new pattern or rhythm for yourself,” she says.