Food and the food model are the main substratum of the intestinal microbiota. In fact, they constitute the main element that conditions the configuration, diversity and functionality of the different families of microorganisms. In addition to the production of a multitude of biocomponents with key effects on human physiology and on the genesis of many alterations in nutritional and health status.

Foods of vegetable origin, and especially those containing traces of insoluble fibre with subsequent complete or partial fermentation in the large intestine, favour the presence of beneficial microorganisms. This is done through the synthesis of various short-chain fatty acids such as butyrate, acetate and propionate. They have a marked anti-inflammatory activity at local and peripheral levels.

Also together with other components of the diet such as polyphenols, niacin or folates they help the bacterial homeostasis. Also to the prevention of degenerative processes such as colon cancer. This process is derived in part from the anaerobic activity of Firmicutes and Bacteriodetes that encode the synthesis of a variety of enzymes capable of hydrolyzing complex indigestible carbohydrates in higher sections.

What is the best diet for microbiota

The Food Pyramid for a healthy microbiota emphasizes the need for daily consumption of a significant amount of fruits, vegetables and greens in different formats, although at least one of the portions should be of varied raw vegetables. Bread and other products made with unrefined, whole grain cereals should be incorporated into the diet.

It is very important to consume dry fruits, pulses and tender legumes, black cocoa, fermented milk products and other fermented products and drinks. There is no doubt about the importance of using extra virgin olive oil in the raw and in the kitchen. If possible, from first cold pressing and from the same year of the harvest.

And in the meat and fish section it is important to prioritize the consumption of seasonal fish, white meat and eggs from group 0 or 1. Take into account the interest of organic and local products, as well as the humanization and ethical procedures of agricultural and livestock production.

We will avoid, as far as possible, the intake of ultraprocessed food, as well as those that incorporate large amounts of sugar, salt and fat, which are usually accompanied by a large load of additives, all of which are of little nutritional value.

Complementing the diet with probiotics

In the context of dietary prescription or dietary advice it may sometimes be of interest to supplement the diet and it may be interesting to do so with the use of probiotics, prebiotics or formulations with added micronutrients or biocomponents.

The temporary or definitive exclusion of some fermentable oligosaccharides or certain carbohydrates such as refined cereals, sugar, processed foods and dairy products, except natural fermented yoghurts, should also be evaluated in some inflammatory intestinal processes.

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